ed.models.QuantizedDistribution

Class QuantizedDistribution

Inherits From: RandomVariable

Distribution representing the quantization Y = ceiling(X).

Definition in terms of sampling.

1. Draw X
2. Set Y <-- ceiling(X)
3. If Y < low, reset Y <-- low
4. If Y > high, reset Y <-- high
5. Return Y

Definition in terms of the probability mass function.

Given scalar random variable X, we define a discrete random variable Y supported on the integers as follows:

P[Y = j] := P[X <= low],  if j == low,
         := P[X > high - 1],  j == high,
         := 0, if j < low or j > high,
         := P[j - 1 < X <= j],  all other j.

Conceptually, without cutoffs, the quantization process partitions the real line R into half open intervals, and identifies an integer j with the right endpoints:

R = ... (-2, -1](-1, 0](0, 1](1, 2](2, 3](3, 4] ...
j = ...      -1      0     1     2     3     4  ...

P[Y = j] is the mass of X within the jth interval. If low = 0, and high = 2, then the intervals are redrawn and j is re-assigned:

R = (-infty, 0](0, 1](1, infty)
j =          0     1     2

P[Y = j] is still the mass of X within the jth interval.

Caveats

Since evaluation of each P[Y = j] involves a cdf evaluation (rather than a closed form function such as for a Poisson), computations such as mean and entropy are better done with samples or approximations, and are not implemented by this class.

Properties

allow_nan_stats

Python bool describing behavior when a stat is undefined.

Stats return +/- infinity when it makes sense. E.g., the variance of a Cauchy distribution is infinity. However, sometimes the statistic is undefined, e.g., if a distribution's pdf does not achieve a maximum within the support of the distribution, the mode is undefined. If the mean is undefined, then by definition the variance is undefined. E.g. the mean for Student's T for df = 1 is undefined (no clear way to say it is either + or - infinity), so the variance = E[(X - mean)**2] is also undefined.

Returns:

  • allow_nan_stats: Python bool.

batch_shape

Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a TensorShape.

May be partially defined or unknown.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

Returns:

  • batch_shape: TensorShape, possibly unknown.

distribution

Base distribution, p(x).

dtype

The DType of Tensors handled by this Distribution.

event_shape

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a TensorShape.

May be partially defined or unknown.

Returns:

  • event_shape: TensorShape, possibly unknown.

name

Name prepended to all ops created by this Distribution.

parameters

Dictionary of parameters used to instantiate this Distribution.

reparameterization_type

Describes how samples from the distribution are reparameterized.

Currently this is one of the static instances distributions.FULLY_REPARAMETERIZED or distributions.NOT_REPARAMETERIZED.

Returns:

An instance of ReparameterizationType.

sample_shape

Sample shape of random variable.

shape

Shape of random variable.

unique_name

Name of random variable with its unique scoping name. Use name to just get the name of the random variable.

validate_args

Python bool indicating possibly expensive checks are enabled.

Methods

init

__init__(
    *args,
    **kwargs
)

Construct a Quantized Distribution representing Y = ceiling(X).

Some properties are inherited from the distribution defining X. Example: allow_nan_stats is determined for this QuantizedDistribution by reading the distribution.

Args:

  • distribution: The base distribution class to transform. Typically an instance of Distribution.
  • low: Tensor with same dtype as this distribution and shape able to be added to samples. Should be a whole number. Default None. If provided, base distribution's prob should be defined at low.
  • high: Tensor with same dtype as this distribution and shape able to be added to samples. Should be a whole number. Default None. If provided, base distribution's prob should be defined at high - 1. high must be strictly greater than low.
  • validate_args: Python bool, default False. When True distribution parameters are checked for validity despite possibly degrading runtime performance. When False invalid inputs may silently render incorrect outputs.
  • name: Python str name prefixed to Ops created by this class.

Raises:

  • TypeError: If dist_cls is not a subclass of Distribution or continuous.
  • NotImplementedError: If the base distribution does not implement cdf.

abs

__abs__()

add

__add__(other)

and

__and__(other)

bool

__bool__()

div

__div__(other)

eq

__eq__(other)

floordiv

__floordiv__(other)

ge

__ge__(other)

getitem

__getitem__(key)

Subset the tensor associated to the random variable, not the random variable itself.

gt

__gt__(other)

invert

__invert__()

iter

__iter__()

le

__le__(other)

lt

__lt__(other)

mod

__mod__(other)

mul

__mul__(other)

neg

__neg__()

nonzero

__nonzero__()

or

__or__(other)

pow

__pow__(other)

radd

__radd__(other)

rand

__rand__(other)

rdiv

__rdiv__(other)

rfloordiv

__rfloordiv__(other)

rmod

__rmod__(other)

rmul

__rmul__(other)

ror

__ror__(other)

rpow

__rpow__(other)

rsub

__rsub__(other)

rtruediv

__rtruediv__(other)

rxor

__rxor__(other)

sub

__sub__(other)

truediv

__truediv__(other)

xor

__xor__(other)

batch_shape_tensor

batch_shape_tensor(name='batch_shape_tensor')

Shape of a single sample from a single event index as a 1-D Tensor.

The batch dimensions are indexes into independent, non-identical parameterizations of this distribution.

Args:

  • name: name to give to the op

Returns:

  • batch_shape: Tensor.

cdf

cdf(
    value,
    name='cdf'
)

Cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable X, the cumulative distribution function cdf is:

cdf(x) := P[X <= x]

Additional documentation from QuantizedDistribution:

For whole numbers y,

cdf(y) := P[Y <= y]
        = 1, if y >= high,
        = 0, if y < low,
        = P[X <= y], otherwise.

Since Y only has mass at whole numbers, P[Y <= y] = P[Y <= floor(y)]. This dictates that fractional y are first floored to a whole number, and then above definition applies.

The base distribution's cdf method must be defined on y - 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • cdf: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

copy

copy(**override_parameters_kwargs)

Creates a deep copy of the distribution.

Note: the copy distribution may continue to depend on the original initialization arguments.

Args:

**override_parameters_kwargs: String/value dictionary of initialization arguments to override with new values.

Returns:

  • distribution: A new instance of type(self) initialized from the union of self.parameters and override_parameters_kwargs, i.e., dict(self.parameters, **override_parameters_kwargs).

covariance

covariance(name='covariance')

Covariance.

Covariance is (possibly) defined only for non-scalar-event distributions.

For example, for a length-k, vector-valued distribution, it is calculated as,

Cov[i, j] = Covariance(X_i, X_j) = E[(X_i - E[X_i]) (X_j - E[X_j])]

where Cov is a (batch of) k x k matrix, 0 <= (i, j) < k, and E denotes expectation.

Alternatively, for non-vector, multivariate distributions (e.g., matrix-valued, Wishart), Covariance shall return a (batch of) matrices under some vectorization of the events, i.e.,

Cov[i, j] = Covariance(Vec(X)_i, Vec(X)_j) = [as above]

where Cov is a (batch of) k' x k' matrices, 0 <= (i, j) < k' = reduce_prod(event_shape), and Vec is some function mapping indices of this distribution's event dimensions to indices of a length-k' vector.

Args:

  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • covariance: Floating-point Tensor with shape [B1, ..., Bn, k', k'] where the first n dimensions are batch coordinates and k' = reduce_prod(self.event_shape).

entropy

entropy(name='entropy')

Shannon entropy in nats.

eval

eval(
    session=None,
    feed_dict=None
)

In a session, computes and returns the value of this random variable.

This is not a graph construction method, it does not add ops to the graph.

This convenience method requires a session where the graph containing this variable has been launched. If no session is passed, the default session is used.

Args:

  • session: tf.BaseSession, optional. The tf.Session to use to evaluate this random variable. If none, the default session is used.
  • feed_dict: dict, optional. A dictionary that maps tf.Tensor objects to feed values. See tf.Session.run() for a description of the valid feed values.

Examples

x = Normal(0.0, 1.0)
with tf.Session() as sess:
  # Usage passing the session explicitly.
  print(x.eval(sess))
  # Usage with the default session.  The 'with' block
  # above makes 'sess' the default session.
  print(x.eval())

event_shape_tensor

event_shape_tensor(name='event_shape_tensor')

Shape of a single sample from a single batch as a 1-D int32 Tensor.

Args:

  • name: name to give to the op

Returns:

  • event_shape: Tensor.

get_ancestors

get_ancestors(collection=None)

Get ancestor random variables.

get_blanket

get_blanket(collection=None)

Get the random variable's Markov blanket.

get_children

get_children(collection=None)

Get child random variables.

get_descendants

get_descendants(collection=None)

Get descendant random variables.

get_parents

get_parents(collection=None)

Get parent random variables.

get_shape

get_shape()

Get shape of random variable.

get_siblings

get_siblings(collection=None)

Get sibling random variables.

get_variables

get_variables(collection=None)

Get TensorFlow variables that the random variable depends on.

is_scalar_batch

is_scalar_batch(name='is_scalar_batch')

Indicates that batch_shape == [].

Args:

  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • is_scalar_batch: bool scalar Tensor.

is_scalar_event

is_scalar_event(name='is_scalar_event')

Indicates that event_shape == [].

Args:

  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • is_scalar_event: bool scalar Tensor.

log_cdf

log_cdf(
    value,
    name='log_cdf'
)

Log cumulative distribution function.

Given random variable X, the cumulative distribution function cdf is:

log_cdf(x) := Log[ P[X <= x] ]

Often, a numerical approximation can be used for log_cdf(x) that yields a more accurate answer than simply taking the logarithm of the cdf when x << -1.

Additional documentation from QuantizedDistribution:

For whole numbers y,

cdf(y) := P[Y <= y]
        = 1, if y >= high,
        = 0, if y < low,
        = P[X <= y], otherwise.

Since Y only has mass at whole numbers, P[Y <= y] = P[Y <= floor(y)]. This dictates that fractional y are first floored to a whole number, and then above definition applies.

The base distribution's log_cdf method must be defined on y - 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • logcdf: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

log_prob

log_prob(
    value,
    name='log_prob'
)

Log probability density/mass function.

Additional documentation from QuantizedDistribution:

For whole numbers y,

P[Y = y] := P[X <= low],  if y == low,
         := P[X > high - 1],  y == high,
         := 0, if j < low or y > high,
         := P[y - 1 < X <= y],  all other y.

The base distribution's log_cdf method must be defined on y - 1. If the base distribution has a log_survival_function method results will be more accurate for large values of y, and in this case the log_survival_function must also be defined on y - 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • log_prob: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

log_survival_function

log_survival_function(
    value,
    name='log_survival_function'
)

Log survival function.

Given random variable X, the survival function is defined:

log_survival_function(x) = Log[ P[X > x] ]
                         = Log[ 1 - P[X <= x] ]
                         = Log[ 1 - cdf(x) ]

Typically, different numerical approximations can be used for the log survival function, which are more accurate than 1 - cdf(x) when x >> 1.

Additional documentation from QuantizedDistribution:

For whole numbers y,

survival_function(y) := P[Y > y]
                      = 0, if y >= high,
                      = 1, if y < low,
                      = P[X <= y], otherwise.

Since Y only has mass at whole numbers, P[Y <= y] = P[Y <= floor(y)]. This dictates that fractional y are first floored to a whole number, and then above definition applies.

The base distribution's log_cdf method must be defined on y - 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

mean

mean(name='mean')

Mean.

mode

mode(name='mode')

Mode.

param_shapes

param_shapes(
    cls,
    sample_shape,
    name='DistributionParamShapes'
)

Shapes of parameters given the desired shape of a call to sample().

This is a class method that describes what key/value arguments are required to instantiate the given Distribution so that a particular shape is returned for that instance's call to sample().

Subclasses should override class method _param_shapes.

Args:

  • sample_shape: Tensor or python list/tuple. Desired shape of a call to sample().
  • name: name to prepend ops with.

Returns:

dict of parameter name to Tensor shapes.

param_static_shapes

param_static_shapes(
    cls,
    sample_shape
)

param_shapes with static (i.e. TensorShape) shapes.

This is a class method that describes what key/value arguments are required to instantiate the given Distribution so that a particular shape is returned for that instance's call to sample(). Assumes that the sample's shape is known statically.

Subclasses should override class method _param_shapes to return constant-valued tensors when constant values are fed.

Args:

  • sample_shape: TensorShape or python list/tuple. Desired shape of a call to sample().

Returns:

dict of parameter name to TensorShape.

Raises:

  • ValueError: if sample_shape is a TensorShape and is not fully defined.

prob

prob(
    value,
    name='prob'
)

Probability density/mass function.

Additional documentation from QuantizedDistribution:

For whole numbers y,

P[Y = y] := P[X <= low],  if y == low,
         := P[X > high - 1],  y == high,
         := 0, if j < low or y > high,
         := P[y - 1 < X <= y],  all other y.

The base distribution's cdf method must be defined on y - 1. If the base distribution has a survival_function method, results will be more accurate for large values of y, and in this case the survival_function must also be defined on y - 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • prob: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

quantile

quantile(
    value,
    name='quantile'
)

Quantile function. Aka "inverse cdf" or "percent point function".

Given random variable X and p in [0, 1], the quantile is:

quantile(p) := x such that P[X <= x] == p

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • quantile: a Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

sample

sample(
    sample_shape=(),
    seed=None,
    name='sample'
)

Generate samples of the specified shape.

Note that a call to sample() without arguments will generate a single sample.

Args:

  • sample_shape: 0D or 1D int32 Tensor. Shape of the generated samples.
  • seed: Python integer seed for RNG
  • name: name to give to the op.

Returns:

  • samples: a Tensor with prepended dimensions sample_shape.

stddev

stddev(name='stddev')

Standard deviation.

Standard deviation is defined as,

stddev = E[(X - E[X])**2]**0.5

where X is the random variable associated with this distribution, E denotes expectation, and stddev.shape = batch_shape + event_shape.

Args:

  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • stddev: Floating-point Tensor with shape identical to batch_shape + event_shape, i.e., the same shape as self.mean().

survival_function

survival_function(
    value,
    name='survival_function'
)

Survival function.

Given random variable X, the survival function is defined:

survival_function(x) = P[X > x]
                     = 1 - P[X <= x]
                     = 1 - cdf(x).

Additional documentation from QuantizedDistribution:

For whole numbers y,

survival_function(y) := P[Y > y]
                      = 0, if y >= high,
                      = 1, if y < low,
                      = P[X <= y], otherwise.

Since Y only has mass at whole numbers, P[Y <= y] = P[Y <= floor(y)]. This dictates that fractional y are first floored to a whole number, and then above definition applies.

The base distribution's cdf method must be defined on y - 1.

Args:

  • value: float or double Tensor.
  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

Tensor of shape sample_shape(x) + self.batch_shape with values of type self.dtype.

value

value()

Get tensor that the random variable corresponds to.

variance

variance(name='variance')

Variance.

Variance is defined as,

Var = E[(X - E[X])**2]

where X is the random variable associated with this distribution, E denotes expectation, and Var.shape = batch_shape + event_shape.

Args:

  • name: The name to give this op.

Returns:

  • variance: Floating-point Tensor with shape identical to batch_shape + event_shape, i.e., the same shape as self.mean().